Certain musculoskeletal and systemic autoimmune conditions affect the joints, muscles and bones, and can result in pain, swelling, stiffness and deformity. These diseases are the purview of adult and pediatric rheumatologists. Common conditions they treat are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, tendinitis, vasculitis’s and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Some of these conditions are inherited, and early referral is important to prevent joint damage from untreated long-standing inflammation. Treatment usually involves anti-inflammatory and chemotherapeutic medication, physical therapy, and injections of analgesics or steroids. A coordinated team approach, such as that practiced at Refuah, is the preferred and most effective way to manage these often debilitating conditions.